Post-translational modification: PTM
Like Gene Ontology (GO), biomedical ontology such as phenotype ontology classifies and organizes gene-mutant/null phenotypic information from the very general at the top to more specific terms in the directed acyclic graph (DAG) by viewing an individual term as a node and its relations to parental terms (allowing for multiple parents) as directed edges. To navigate this hierarchy, we display all parental phenotypic terms to the current phenotypic term of interest ordered by their shortest distances to the current term. Also, only direct children phenotypic terms of the current phenotypic term are listed. Biomedical ontologies we have incorporated are as follows:
- Disease Ontology (DO) Ontology DO semantically integrates disease and medical vocabularies through extensive cross mapping of DO terms to MeSH, ICD, NCI’s thesaurus, SNOMED and OMIM.
- Human Phenotype (HP) Ontology HP captures phenotypic abnormalities that are described in OMIM, along with the corresponding disease-causing genes. It includes three complementary biological concepts: Mode_of_Inheritance (MI), ONset_and_clinical_course (ON), and Phenotypic_Abnormality (PA).
- Mouse Phenotype (MP) Ontology MP describes phenotypes of the mouse after a specific gene is genetically disrupted. Using it, Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) provides high-coverate gene-level phenotypes for the mouse.
- Worm Phenotype (WP) Ontology WP classifies and organizes phenotype descriptions for C. elegans and other nematodes. Using it, WormBase provides primary resource for phenotype annotations for C. elegans.
- Yeast Phenotype (YP) Ontology Based on YP which is the major contributor to the ‘Ascomycete phenotype ontology’, Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides single mutant phenotypes for every gene in the yeast genome.
- Fly Phenotype (FP) Ontology FP refers to FlyBase controlled vocabulary. Specifically, a structured controlled vocabulary is used for the annotation of alleles (for their mutagen etc) in FlyBase.
- Fly Anatomy (FA) Ontology FA is a structured controlled vocabulary of the anatomy of Drosophila melanogaster, used for the description of phenotypes and where a gene is expressed.
- Zebrafish Anatomy (ZA) Ontology ZA displays anatomical terms of the zebrafish using standard anatomical nomenclature, together with affected genes.
- Xenopus Anatomy (XA) Ontology XA represents the lineage of tissues and the timing of development for frogs (Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis). It is used to annotate Xenopus gene expression patterns and mutant and morphant phenotypes.
- Arabidopsis Plant Ontology (AP) Ontology As a major contributor to Plant Ontology which describes plant anatomical and morphological structures (AN) and growth and developmental stages (DE), the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) provides arabidopsis plant ontology annotations for the model higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
- Enzyme Commission (EC) Ontology Each enzyme is allocated a four-digit EC number, the first three digits of which define the reaction catalysed and the fourth of which is a unique identifier (serial number). Each enzyme is also assigned a systematic name that uniquely defines the reaction catalysed.
- UniProtKB KeyWords (KW) Ontology Keywords in UniProtKB are controlled vocabulary, providing a summary of the entry content and are used to index UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries based on 10 categories (the category "Technical term" being excluded here). Each keyword is attributed manually to UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries and automatically to UniProtKB/TrEMBL entries (according to specific annotation rules).
- UniProtKB UniPathway (UP) Ontology UP is a fully manually curated resource for the representation and annotation of metabolic pathways, being used as controlled vocabulary for pathway annotation in UniProtKB.
- CTD Diseases (CD) Ontology CD is MEDIC disease vocabulary that is modified by CTD from the "Diseases" [C] branch of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), combined with genetic disorders from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in OMIM database.
- CTD Chemicals (CC) Ontology CC is chemical vocabulary that is adapted by CTD from the "Chemicals and Drugs" category and Supplementary Concept Records of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH, a hierarchical vocabulary used to index articles for MEDLINE/PubMed).
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Root: KW Hierarchy (Keywords from UniProtKB)