This entry represents the alpha and beta subunits found in the F1, V1, and A1 complexes of F-, V- and A-ATPases, respectively (sometimes called the A and B subunits in V- and A-ATPases). The F-ATPases (or F1F0-ATPases), V-ATPases (or V1V0-ATPases) and A-ATPases (or A1A0-ATPases) are composed of two linked complexes: the F1, V1 or A1 complex contains the catalytic core that synthesizes/hydrolyses ATP, and the F0, V0 or A0 complex that forms the membrane-spanning pore. The F-, V- and A-ATPases all contain rotary motors, one that drives proton translocation across the membrane and one that drives ATP synthesis/hydrolysis [11309608, 15629643].
In F-ATPases, there are three copies each of the alpha and beta subunits that form the catalytic core of the F1 complex, while the remaining F1 subunits (gamma, delta, epsilon) form part of the stalks. There is a substrate-binding site on each of the alpha and beta subunits, those on the beta subunits being catalytic, while those on the alpha subunits are regulatory. The alpha and beta subunits form a cylinder that is attached to the central stalk. The alpha/beta subunits undergo a sequence of conformational changes leading to the formation of ATP from ADP, which are induced by the rotation of the gamma subunit, itself is driven by the movement of protons through the F0 complex C subunit .
In V- and A-ATPases, the alpha/A and beta/B subunits of the V1 or A1 complex are homologous to the alpha and beta subunits in the F1 complex of F-ATPases, except that the alpha subunit is catalytic and the beta subunit is regulatory.
The alpha/A and beta/B subunits can each be divided into three regions, or domains, centred around the ATP-binding pocket, and based on structure and function, where the central region is the nucleotide-binding domain . This entry represents the C-terminal domain of the alpha/A/beta/B subunits, which forms a left-handed superhelix composed of 4-5 individual helices. The C-terminal domain can vary between the alpha and beta subunits, and between different ATPases .
More information about this protein can be found at Protein of the Month: ATP Synthases.